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This terrain has made it difficult for the country to develop transportation infrastructure. Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane.

Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch, in the interests of preservation.

The country is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire , at the point of collision of several tectonic plates.

Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate , forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea also called Sahul or Meganesia.

It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait , which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge , particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present.

The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers.

There are several active volcanoes , and eruptions are frequent. Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis.

On 25 February , an earthquake of magnitude 7. The border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was confirmed by treaty with Australia before independence in Maritime boundaries with the Solomon Islands were confirmed by a treaty.

Many species of birds and mammals found on New Guinea have close genetic links with corresponding species found in Australia.

One notable feature in common for the two landmasses is the existence of several species of mmarsupial mammals , including some kangaroos and possums , which are not found elsewhere.

Papua New Guinea is a megadiverse country. As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they lack many of the land mammals and flightless birds that are common to New Guinea and Australia.

Australia and New Guinea are portions of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana , which started to break into smaller continents in the Cretaceous period, 65— million years ago.

Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. All the Australasian lands are home to the Antarctic flora , descended from the flora of southern Gondwana, including the coniferous podocarps and Araucaria pines, and the broad-leafed southern beech Nothofagus.

These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras.

Three new species of mammals were discovered in the forests of Papua New Guinea by an Australian-led expedition.

A small wallaby, a large-eared mouse and shrew-like marsupial were discovered. The expedition was also successful in capturing photographs and video footage of some other rare animals such as the Tenkile tree kangaroo and the Weimang tree kangaroo.

Trees such as oaks, red cedars, pines, beeches are becoming predominantly present in the uplands above 3, feet. Papua New Guinea is rich in various species of reptiles, indigenous freshwater fish and birds, but it is almost devoid of large mammals.

The climate on the island is essentially tropical, but it varies by region. Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks , and in some parts agriculture.

The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors including law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title makes it difficult for outside developers.

Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, and access to finance.

Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output , with palm oil now the main agricultural export.

Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilise the kina , restore stability to the national budget, privatise public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the agreement which ended Bougainville's secessionist unrest.

The Morauta government had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans.

IOC , which have partly combined their assets after Total agreed in December to purchase Total S. Further gas and mineral projects are proposed including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine , with extensive exploration ongoing across the country.

The PNG government's long-term Vision and shorter-term policy documents, including the Budget and the Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects.

Measures have been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund , partly to stabilise revenue and expenditure flows, but much will depend upon the readiness to make real reforms to effective use of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, services and develop a more buoyant economy, with lower costs, especially for small to medium-size enterprises.

One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered.

The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure.

The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called " customary land title " is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure.

Freehold title also known as fee simple can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser.

Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another.

Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants or their descendants alone if they have recently died.

This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is identifying the membership of customary landowning groups and the owners.

Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners.

Customary property—usually land—cannot be devised by will. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people.

The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' SABLs to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval.

Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament.

Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians , their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago.

There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese , [87] Europeans, Australians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians the last four belonging to the Austronesian family.

The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2. With an average of only 7, speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu.

English is the language of government and the education system, but it is not spoken widely. The primary lingua franca of the country is Tok Pisin commonly known in English as New Guinean Pidgin or Melanesian Pidgin , in which much of the debate in Parliament is conducted, many information campaigns and advertisements are presented, and a national weekly newspaper, Wantok , is published.

The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua, where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu.

Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages.

Life expectancy in Papua New Guinea at birth was 64 years for men in and 68 for women. This is compared with The under-5 mortality rate, per 1, births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5s' mortality is In Papua New Guinea, the number of midwives per 1, live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in Citizen population in Papua New Guinea by religion, based on the census [].

The government and judiciary uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted.

The census found that Virtually no respondent identified as being nonreligious. Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices.

There are approximately 2, Muslims in the country. The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi. Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country.

Some also tend to have elements of veneration of the dead , though generalisation is suspect given the extreme heterogeneity of Melanesian societies.

Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai , or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri sorcery.

It is estimated that more than one thousand cultural groups exist in Papua New Guinea. Because of this diversity, many styles of cultural expression have emerged.

Each group has created its own expressive forms in art, dance, weaponry, costumes, singing, music, architecture and much more. Most of these cultural groups have their own language.

People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming. In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants such as yam roots and karuka to supplement their diets.

Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect. Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in This tradition is still present in local customs.

In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells [] as a bride price.

In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money , pigs, cassowaries or cash. Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry.

People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". They paint themselves and dress up with feathers, pearls and animal skins to represent birds, trees or mountain spirits.

Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival. The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists , despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world.

Sport is an important part of Papua New Guinean culture, and rugby league is by far the most popular sport.

Many Papua New Guineans have become celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league.

Even Australian rugby league players who have played in the annual State of Origin series , which is celebrated every year in PNG, are among the most well-known people throughout the nation.

State of Origin is a highlight of the year for most Papua New Guineans, although the support is so passionate that many people have died over the years in violent clashes supporting their team.

Although not as popular, Australian rules football is more significant in another way, as the national team is ranked second, only after Australia.

Other major sports which have a part in the Papua New Guinea sporting landscape are association football , rugby union , basketball and, in eastern Papua, cricket.

A large proportion of the population is illiterate , [] with women predominating in this area. The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition.

Papua New Guinea's National Vision was adopted in This has led to the establishment of the Research, Science and Technology Council.

At its gathering in November , the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology. Vision 's medium-term priorities are: [].

Nine out of ten scientific publications from Papua New Guinea focused on immunology, genetics, biotechnology and microbiology. Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland.

Forestry is an important economic resource for Papua New Guinea, but the industry uses low and semi-intensive technological inputs.

As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips. Only a few limited finished products are exported.

Lack of automated machinery, coupled with inadequately trained local technical personnel, are some of the obstacles to introducing automated machinery and design.

Renewable energy sources represent two-thirds of the total electricity supply. Since its inception in , the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university.

The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.

Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period.

Even today the two largest cities, Port Moresby and Lae, are only directly connected by planes. Port Moresby is not linked by road to any of the other major towns, and many remote villages can only be reached by light aircraft or on foot.

In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has airstrips, most of which are unpaved.

This article incorporates text from a free content work. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page.

For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in the western Pacific. National emblem. Main article: History of Papua New Guinea. Main article: Politics of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Law of Papua New Guinea. Main article: Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Human rights in Papua New Guinea. See also: Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Geography of Papua New Guinea. Map of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Environmental issues in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Economy of Papua New Guinea. Main article: Demographics of Papua New Guinea.

Largest cities and towns in Papua New Guinea www. Main article: Languages of Papua New Guinea. Main article: Health in Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Religion in Papua New Guinea. Seventh-day Adventist Pentecostal Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea 5.

Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea 3. Baptist 2. Salvation Army 0. Kwato Church 0. Other Christian 5. Non Christian 1. Not stated 3.

Main article: Sport in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Education in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Transport in Papua New Guinea.

Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 9 August The National. Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 19 January The World Factbook.

Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 October Radio New Zealand. Kele, Roko. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 February World Bank.

United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 19 July Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

The Independent. Retrieved 26 March Database updated on 6 October Accessed on 6 October World Development Indicators. Washington DC. Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute.

Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 7 March Tuttle Publishing. March University of Michigan Press. National Geographic News.

The Anthropology of Cannibalism. Greenwood Publishing Group. QnA ". Archived from the original on 5 July CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link.

Australian War Memorial. Radio Australia. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 December The Australian. Retrieved 30 June Elizabeth: A Biography of Britain's Queen.

Riverhead Books. University of Sydney. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 17 January The Lancet.

Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original PDF on 27 August Retrieved 18 May BBC News. Vice News. The Washington Post 14 June Retrieved 28 September Several provinces have changed their names; such changes are not strictly speaking official without a formal constitutional amendment, though "Oro," for example, is universally used in reference to that province.

Archived from the original on 16 June The National Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Post-Courier. Retrieved 23 September These amendments would set a new minimum age for marriages for both boys and girls.

Witch killings are an ongoing phenomenon in PNG, especially in the Highlands. The UN has estimated that witch killings occur annually. The government recognises both "white magic", which involves healing and fertility, and sorcery.

Sorcery or "black magic" carries a jail sentence of up to 2 years imprisonment. Often the individuals targeted are vulnerable young women, or widows without sons.

In , people were charged following the deaths of more than seven people accused of sorcery. The CEDAW Committee highlighted the increasing reports of the torture and killing of women and girls accused of witchcraft.

These women and girls were identified as typically being vulnerable members of society, in particular older women without adult sons.

The Committee also raised concerns about the lack of information on this cultural practice. To properly understand this phenomenon investigations, prosecutions and the judgments of these cases are required.

The women's advocacy group the Leniata Legacy was founded following the brutal murder of Kepari Leniata in PNG became a member of the United Nations in Consequently, it lacks the status of domestic law under that Act of Parliament or Constitution.

The Committee was also concerned about the awareness of the inhabitants of PNG in relation to the Convention.

This concern has arisen because the Convention has not been translated into the main social languages of PNG.

UNDP has three key areas: 1 Supporting women so that they can participate and represent in decision making, both at national and sub-national levels; 2 Giving support to initiatives which address Gender based violence; 3 To promote women's economic empowerment.

Cultural practices and traditional attitudes often act as a barrier for women and girls trying to access education. There is a high level of harassment and sexual abuse experienced by girls in education facilities.

Perpetrators include male teachers. These assaults combined with expulsion due to pregnancy, have led to a lower completion rate of girls compared to boys.

There is also a lack of data available about the dropout rates, literacy rates and education enrolment rates.

This lack of data makes compiling comparative analysis challenging. The aim of this policy was to address the gender gap which occur at all levels of education.

Following this is , PNG launched a year education plan. There is still a lack of transparency about the education sectors budget. Restricted access to education was identified as a barrier to the full enjoyment of girl's and women's human rights.

PNG operates a plural legal system. Customary law is subordinate to the Constitution and statutory law. PNG lacks an effective system for dealing with complaints which arise from the legal system.

There is also a failure to keep records of the complaints filed by women and their outcome. Furthermore, traditional apologies are still offered as a form of resolution for offences committed.

This cultural practice is still performed in the context of village courts. Introduced in , this Act created new offences including marital rape.

This was further developed to include grading according to the seriousness of harm, and the manner of sexual violation. This Act included provisions aimed at protecting girls from discrimination.

In the Family Protection Bill was introduced. The Criminal Code Amendment Act criminalised sorcery-related killings and violence. This Bill aimed to increase the representation of women in Parliament by having 22 seats reserved for women.

However, this Bill failed to pass in and is yet to be reconsidered. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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